The assembly of large-scale products is usually organized based on the job-site principle. In order to have sufficient space for every assembly step, companies reserve a defined area in the factory that corresponds to the maximum expansion of the product (see Figure 2). However, the real area requirement varies with the progress of assembly: On the one hand, the product itself increases gradually, on the other hand, storage and machine areas are constantly needed.
Intelligent, dynamic layouts would save a lot of space: Companies would only have to reserve as much space for every product as needed at the very moment. In practice, planning is very difficult, since there is a large variety of optional layouts.
Presently, researchers at the Institut für Integrierte Produktion Hannover (IPH) are developing a method which enables automated layout of assembly objects at a minimum of space. A programme depicts the facility layout in a grid pattern (see Figure 3). A mathematical optimization model calculates where and when to place which product in the facility.